Sunday, August 26, 2012

Common Tattoo errors - to AVOID!

Sanskrit fonts don't work like normal English fonts. Letters combine like nobody's business.
A vowel when written by itself is different than a vowel that appears inside a word. There, only its mark, sign, maatraa appears!

When multiple consonants occur in sequence a new symbols emerges, called a ligature. Without proper ligatures the language loses all its charm. 

Reasons for translation related mistakes:

  1. Shades of meanings - Sanskrit has many words, synonyms with shades of meaning, depending on context. Words are organically formed from based root verbs, and which starting verb root one chooses can change the shade of meaning. Without discussing the context and usage of the words in the English phrase, mistakes can happen. For example, fearless can mean 'steadfast' (who is not disturbed by fear) or 'controlled self' (fear comes when one doesn't know self or control self), apart from the obvious 'without fear'.
  2. Sound merging - Sanskrit words change forms when inside a sentence. Nearby sounds merge, and the reverse break up can sometimes be done in multiple ways, leading to confusion. Similarly, when translating a phrase into Sanskrit, these rules also need to be observed and such merging of sounds (elision) should be done.
  3. Proper Names - Sanskrit is purely phonetic, much more than you can imagine in English. Each sound has one symbol, and each symbol has one sound. (True, sometimes a letter has slight variations - like old style versus new style, conjugate or not etc.). So, it is important to know how YOU pronounce the name you want to be tattoo-ed. So if you are in Finland or in Australia, your pronunciation of the same name will be different, and then it MUST BE written differently. Jack if pronounced as Jaak, must be written differently. Or Maria may be pronounced maa-ri-yaa or may-ri-ya or may-ri-aa or maa-ri-aa - all four are written differently.
  4. Translator's accent - Sometimes, the translator's own mother tongue can bias him/her to assume a certain pronunciation. Whether or not they have visited other countries, to get used to other accents also matters. Even within India, people with different mother tongues can spell a word differently, and pronounce differently, unless they are trained in proper Sanskrit pronunciation.
  5. Hindi is not same as Sanskrit - Though closely related, and Hindi being the direct daughter of Sanskrit, with a vocabulary of over 60% from Sanskrit, and using the exact same script for writing, Hindi is still different from Sanskrit. The easiest way to tell is that mostly Sanskrit words have dots (nasal 'm' sound) at word endings OR a colon at word endings (visarga, extra gust of air in speaking).
  6. Using a translator software or dictionary - A dictionary is good to use for getting the job done, but a dictionary lists out MANY words with shades of different meaning, and usage matters. It is of great help only if you already know the language and want more choices of synonyms etc. Blindly going by an online dictionary can result in funny or serious mistakes.

Reasons for script related mistakes:

  1. Different way of writing - Sanskrit words are not written just like English words, where letters stand on their own. In Sanskrit letters combine with adjacent ones based on specific rules and context. Vowels are almost always merged with consonants. Certain consonant pairs or triplets change altogether!
  2. Different computers - Different computers can differ in many ways - what operating system (Windows or Mac or Linux)? What browser (Firefox, IE, Safari..)? Which version of browser? Within a browser what plugins are installed and enabled? Are any language specific packs installed for Windows? Is the font Unicode or older one? Unicode fonts themselves come in various flavors, Mangal being the default and one of the worst. Arial Unicode MS being one of the best. 
  3. Font rendering - This has to be do with how a font shows up on a computer. Even if someone types in Arial Unicode and sends it to you over Facebook message, you will most probably see it in Mangal or some other substitute and you will not even know that the font is messed up while rendering (See examples below)
  4. Aesthetics - Different fonts have different aesthetic value. Just because it is in a script that you can't understand doesn't make it correct and exotic :) Here, you can choose from over 15 fonts.
  5. Ligatures - Sanskrit has over 100 commonly used ligatures. Modern computer fonts don't have all, and there is also some movement to simplify it. This movement is without understanding the extremely scientific reason for ligatures formation. It is not just for beauty or exoticism. If you choose to not use ligatures, then you are losing out something very unique and important.
  6. Using online generator software - If you know Sanskrit language and script then a generator might be okay, else you may make wonderful mistakes without knowing any better. One common mistake is to type English word in the website and think it will translate and change the script as well. That is when you can end up with text that is not correct spelling of anything, i.e. it is not correct way of writing ANYTHING, not even a different incorrect word. (See examples below).

The common issues with font rendering are shown below in some real tattoos on the net.

Font rendering issues
The above is supposed to mean truth (satyam) and devotion (bhakti)
Due to the error in font rendering, the second one bhakti reads back as bharktaa !

This does not make any sense in Sanskrit.

First word not properly rendered!

Phoenix, which turned out to be totally wrong. Reads back as something like 'honakisha'

#1 and #2 are garbage.
#3 and #4 are not Sanskrit, but Hindi.

Don't get these errors, get an image of correctly rendered fonts of correct translations.

Sunday, August 19, 2012

spelled out - OM, AUM

Apart from the symbol for OM/AUM, one can write it out using the letters of the alphabet. The "O" sound is spoken for 3 units of times, so the image below is literally O3M!

Moksha - calligraphic art work for Sanskrit tattoo

Moksha - nirvana, salvation, liberation ...

Handwritten, calligraphy pen, in coffee-stain sepia style (stylish) and plain text style.



Calligraphic writing - Karina

There are many requests for proper name translation. Curvaceous calligraphy is very well suited for names, since they are usually single words (or two). 

There are a few  things you should know about proper name translation.
  1. Proper names are not translated, they are only transliterated. That is, only the script to write the name is changed, not the sound itself.
  2. Because Sanskrit is a perfectly phonetic language, the way you say the word matters and needs to be known. That is, the same name may be said differently in French, German, Norwegian or Spanish, then the same word will be written differently in Sanskrit, because the sounds changed. If possible attach a mp3 file of your pronunciation of the name, if it is not a very common name. 
  3. Not all foreign sounds are in Sanskrit. Sanskrit sounds are more clear cut, and follow the extremely scientific pattern of its alphabet. Many of its sounds are not found in other languages or are blurred, like the aspirates. So, there are some sounds just because of the scientific pattern, but so difficult to pronounce that they are rarely used [Examples of lṛi and lṝi (lṛī) sounds]. Then there are sounds in other languages that are not exactly a whole new sound following the pattern, so they are not included in Sanskrit. No clicking sounds, no in-between vowels, or 'f' or 'z' sounds. With modern interactions, some of the foreign sounds have special symbols adopted in the script. Its main use is in modern languages like Hindi and Marathi which have adopted some of the foreign sounds like 'f' and 'z'.
So if you are requesting for a proper name, please try to give pronunciation help. Break the word in syllables, and find common rhyming words for them. If you can attach an audio file MP3 to the email as an example.

Apart from getting computer font text, you can also get calligraphic writing, either in normal style, or in fancy artwork style. 

Get your own tattoo.

Monday, August 13, 2012

How letters combine in Sanskrit?

Many of you may be using an online generator to get your tattoo text. But do you know if it is correct?
A language has two parts - sounds and letters to write those sounds.
In English and most Romance language, letters remain separate. Some languages do have ligatures where two adjacent letters combine. '&' is an example of a ligature that has now become a symbol of its own.

So first you need to decide if you want to translate the word to Sanskrit or not. Sometimes, like in proper names, there is no translation, just a change of script.

Then, if you want the translation, you need to worry about writing in the Sanskrit script, called Devanagari. Writing in this script is not difficult but it is not simple, specially if you do not already know how to write in it.

DO NOT rely on an online generator, or you will have some terrible results. There are so many requests to verify tattoo images received, and more than half turned out to be so off the mark, that one can't begin to say what is wrong. Simply because feeding English spellings to the generator does NOT work.

Below is an example of how consonant groups change the base letter as well! This is is next level of complexity.

If you are going to spend time, money, energy, emotions in a permanent tattoo, why not make sure you have the right translation, text, beautiful fonts to match it? Why cut corners there? Check out the Get Tattoo Image page for your options.